The casting of lots has a long history, from the biblical book of Numbers to Roman civic lotteries for municipal repairs to more recent events such as determining who gets units in a subsidized housing block or kindergarten placements at a prestigious public school. Modern lottery games, however, have become increasingly popular, both for their potential to yield material wealth and as a source of state revenue. While there is no doubt that the money generated by these events can be useful, the way in which they are promoted raises serious concerns: Does the promotion of gambling promote problem gambling, rob poor communities, and serve at cross-purposes with the general public interest?
While many people play the lottery out of pure whimsy or a desire for instant riches, some have developed sophisticated strategies. These include purchasing multiple tickets with combinations of numbers that aren’t close together (as the occurrence of these numbers will decrease the probability of winning), playing the same numbers over and over, and pooling their money for large purchases. In some cases, these individuals have even enlisted the help of investors to fund their purchases, a method reminiscent of what mathematician Stefan Mandel used to win 14 lottery jackpots.
The popularity of the lottery also stems in part from its status as a form of “painless” state revenue, with voters willingly spending their money to support state programs while politicians view it as an opportunity for free tax dollars. Yet critics contend that lottery advertising is often deceptive, presenting misleading odds and inflating the value of prize money (lotto jackpot prizes are generally paid in annual installments over 20 years, with inflation and taxes dramatically eroding the current value).